National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) is a network project of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) launched in February, 2011. The project aims to enhance resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change and climate vulnerability through strategic research and technology demonstration. The research on adaptation and mitigation covers crops, livestock, fisheries and natural resource management. The project consists of four components viz. Strategic Research, Technology Demonstration, Capacity Building and Sponsored/Competitive Grants. The project was formally launched by the Hon’ble Union Minister for Agriculture & Food Processing Industries Shri Sharad Pawarji on 2nd February 2011. Climate induced variability, over the years, has become a threat to farm based livelihood systems in the costal part of Odisha. To a greater extent, the Kendrapara, Ganjam, Sonenpur and Jharsuguda region of the state is reeling under such climatologically distress condition. This refers to the susceptibility of the farmers and farm dependent communities to recurrent droughts, erratic rainfall, soil moisture stress, flood, flash floods, water logging etc. resulting in crop failures thereby severely impacting the lives of agricultural communities, medium and small farmers and agricultural labourers. The most affected are the poorest of the poor and specially women and children.
Kendrapara is aptly considered the ‘Kendra’ of all disasters. Natural disasters like flood, cyclone, tornado, sunstrokes and drought have become serious problems not only in our district but to entire Odisha state.
Comprehensive field evaluation of new and emerging approaches of paddy cultivation like aerobic rice and SRI for their contribution to reduce the GHG emissions and water saving. Special attention to livestock and fishery sectors including aquaculture which have not received enough attention in climate change research in the past. In particular, the documentation of adaptive traits in indigenous breeds is the most useful step. Thorough understanding of crop-pest/pathogen relationship and emergences of new biotypes due to climate change. Simultaneous up scaling of the outputs both through KVKs and the National Mission on sustainable Agriculture for wider adoption by the farmers.
Rising temperature, increased climate variability and extreme weather events significantly impact food security in the coming decades. The most productive costal areas are frequently drought and flood prone region of the country. Many coping strategies have been developed overtime but are inadequate to cope with the high extreme weather events and stress. Therefore there is need for using modern science combined with indigenous technical knowledge to enhance the resilience of Indian agriculture to climate change. Demonstration of existing management practices by enhancing resilience of crops/livestock to climate change in 100 most vulnerable districts by KVK.
To enhance the resilience of Indian agriculture covering crops, livestock and fisheries to climatic variability and climate change through development and application of improved production and risk management technologies. To demonstrate site specific technology packages on farmers fields for adapting to current climate risks. To enhance the capacity of scientists and other stakeholders in climate resilient agriculture research and its application.
Under this objective, an integrated package of proven technologies will be demonstration in one village in each district for adaptation and mitigation of the crop and livestock production system to climate variability based on the available technologies. The districts to be covered for these demonstration and list of KVKs are listed separately. The process of finalizing demonstration package will have the following steps:
The interventions in the village panchayats are finalized following a participatory approach through the Village Climate Risk Management Committee (VCRMC), after the PRA to assess the climate related problems in the village and baseline survey. The program was launched formally in all the villages by involving the state line department functionaries and leaders of the panchayats to ensure local ownership of the project from the beginning and convergence of related schemes currently in operation in the panchayat. In each village, the interventions are made in the following four modules:
Interventions related to in-situ moisture conservation, water harvesting, supplemental irrigation, improved drainage in flood prone areas, conservation tillage where appropriate, artificial ground water recharge and water saving irrigation methods.
Introducing drought/temperature/flood tolerant varieties, advancement of planting dates of rabi crops in areas with terminal heat stress, water saving paddy cultivation methods (SRI, aerobic, direct seeding), frost management in horticulture through trash burning, community nurseries for delayed monsoon, custom hiring centres for timely planting, location specific intercropping systems with high sustainable yield index.
Use of community lands for fodder production during droughts/floods, improved fodder/feed storage methods, preventive vaccination, improved shelters for reducing heat stress in livestock , management of fish ponds/tanks during water scarcity and excess water.
Institutional interventions either by strengthening the existing ones or initiating new ones relating to seed bank, fodder bank, commodity groups, custom hiring centre, collective marketing, introduction of weather index based insurance and climate literacy through a village level weather station.